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Brain Freeze

Imagine you suddenly find yourself stranded in sub-zero temperatures. You have a limited amount of fuel to produce a small amount of heat, but you have no idea how much longer you will be stuck. You cannot leave your location except on foot, and there is nowhere to go for miles. Snow is blowing and drifting everywhere, making walking even more impossible. You only have whatever food or water you had on your person at the time. This continues for over 24 hours before you are rescued.

Does this seem like a bizarre and unlikely scenario? Just a couple weeks ago it was reality for not one, but hundreds of unsuspecting motorists [1], and not in some third world country either. It occurred in the fine country of our neighbor to the north … Canada. Just five miles over the bridge from the United States, a sudden snow storm made the bridge and highway entering Canada from the USA totally impassable for several miles, leaving everyone stranded as authorities desperately worked to clear the roads. Snowplows could not get through. Military vehicles could not get through. Some at risk people were able to be removed by helicopter, but only after several hours.

For one man this emergency proved to be his last. For reasons that are yet unknown, he left his car that had run off the highway in the midst of the crisis. He was found a mere 54 yards from his vehicle – dead [2]. Autopsy results determined he died of hypothermia.

What is Hypothermia?

Hypothermia occurs when your internal body temperature gets too cold – specifically, under 95 degrees Fahrenheit (35 degrees Celsius). It can cause many health problems, including; frostbite, confusion, organ damage, coma, and even death. It can be caused not just by cold weather, but anything that cools the body down, such as use of alcohol and other drugs, being in cool water (even as warm as 65 degree water can cause hypothermia), or even the wind chill you are subjected to when riding a motorcycle. Often these work in combination with each other and, combined with insufficient clothing for the conditions, underlying health conditions, or risk factors such as age, contribute to the yearly statistical fatalities.  Children can even get hypothermia sleeping in a cold room with too few blankets, since they are more vulnerable than adults.

Preventing Hypothermia

So how do you keep hypothermia from setting in? The simple answer is to stay warm. That can be easier said than done but, as with everything else, forethought and planning can be a great help.

Recognizing Hypothermia

Hypothermia is a sneaky killer. Because one of the first things it does is inhibit brain function, you may not even realize that you are becoming hypothermic. Judgment becomes impaired, and confusion starts to set in. This can lead to risky behavior that makes you even more vulnerable.

The first noticeable response your body will have to cold temperatures is shivering in an attempt to warm up. When you or a loved one starts shivering, it is the time to take action. It will be increasingly more difficult to prevent and care for hypothermia as it progresses. Once your body reaches the shivering stage it will be harder to think, as the brain is the first major organ that is affected by cold. Once your body gives up on shivering, it will progress through additional symptoms including:

With infants and children you must be especially observant since many of these symptoms may not be as noticeable, but will still be present and observable if you are paying attention.

Treating Hypothermia

In cases other than very mild hypothermia, where no frostbite has occurred and the individual is still in a relatively stable mental state, professional medical care is ideal, if possible. Tissue can be damaged by rough handling, and a medical facility will have the ability to do things (such as use warm fluids through an IV, or even draw blood to warm it and then put back into the body) that just aren’t available in a home setting.

However, in some situations you will have no choice but to do the best you can to care for yourself or others.

Hypothermia is more likely to affect those who are elderly, sick, or very young, but can strike anyone if the conditions are right.  In fact, according to the CDC [3] 23% of cases of death from hypothermia occur while the person is at home. Protect yourselves and those you love from this silent, yet dangerous, result of too much cold.

Other articles in this issue:

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